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2012
09-19

「洗脑」利用了哪些心理学原理?人脑发生了哪些生理变化?

看到有些答案把“洗脑”泛化到等同于接受知识和观念,我必须要纠正一下。仅仅是学习知识和观念并非是洗脑。教育的目的是让人了解各种不同的东西,学会独立的思考和判断,能够进行批判性思考,但又能很宽容、包容与自己观点不同的想法。而洗脑的目的则与此相反,洗脑只允许一种思想一种价值观,它无法容忍对该种思想的任何质疑,更无法容忍任何不同和对立的思想。如果说教育是让人们学会思考,那么洗脑就是让人们放弃思考,只会遵从。

通常洗脑者要实现目的,有如下几种主要的手段:
1)只提供单一的信息源和信息通道,把其他的信息源和通道屏蔽。当人们长期处于单种信息的环境下,就逐渐失去了批评性思考的能力,只能被动接受这种信息。因为人天生就渴求信息,和需要食物和水一样,当面临要么接受单一信息要么不接受任何信息两种选择时,人只能选择前者。
2)制造群体压力,尤其是让周边人、同伴等施加影响。洗脑者善于制造一种舆论环境,让环境中所有的人说同样的话做同样的事,由于人天生是群体性动物,所以绝大多数人是无法抗拒这种压力,只能选择融入这个集体,说同样的话做同样的事。
3)让人处于高亢的情绪状态,让生理左右心理,让情感战胜理智。当人们处于一种过激的情绪状态时,是无法用理性思考的。洗脑者深知这一点,所以会制造一些活动让受洗人处于一种持续高亢的情绪中,比如唱歌、朗诵、喊口号等等。
4)让人做出承诺。洗脑者还有一高招,利用人的自律的力量,就是通过诱骗和施压等各种手段让受洗人做出一些承诺,即承诺一定遵守某些思想和行为法则,那么受洗人就会陷入这一自我帮助搭建的牢笼中,如果今后质疑了这些思想和法则,就相当于违背了自己。
5)仪式化。洗脑者会制造一些仪式,仪式可以把一些抽象的思想具象化、有形化,让人们形成图腾崇拜,并且仪式的庄严感也给受洗者造成必须遵从的压力。
6)通过身体力行来强化信仰。洗脑者会让受洗者对思想进行实践,这些实践对于内心的认同也能起到很大的作用。即便有些人原本思想上不接受,但是如果长时间按照规定做某些事情,最后也会发生态度的转变。心理决定行为,同时行为决定心理。

当然,在现今的互联网时代,除了传销组织等极少数力量外,很少有人能够肆无忌惮地对他人进行洗脑了。但是,一些“高级”的、软性的、隐形的洗脑方式还很有市场。

转自知乎:http://www.zhihu.com/question/19729171

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作者:轻飏
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